Cost-Benefit Versus Cost-Effective Analyses

Appraising the value of public policy should include a budgetary assessment. As a professional in the field, you will not only need to perform the assessment but also select how the assessment will be performed.

 

Because public policies can be expensive, it is important to use economic approaches to better understand the real costs of governmental programs. 

 

This week you will research costs-benefit analysis and cost-effective analysis of the policy that you are evaluating.

 

To inform the stakeholders you identified in Week Two, add 10 to 15 slides detailing the fiscal analysis you deem necessary for gauging the cost of the policy.

 

Consider the following questions about the policy that you evaluated in Week 2:

  • What cost-benefit analysis would you apply?
  • What steps would you go through to conduct this analysis?
  • What kinds of data would you need to conduct such an analysis?
  • What financial and human resources would this analysis require?
  • What results would you expect?
  • What cost-effectiveness analysis would you apply?
  • What steps would you go through to conduct this analysis?
  • What kinds of data would you need to conduct such an analysis?
  • What financial and human resources would this analysis require?
  • What results would you expect?

 

Add a Summary Document for your stakeholders that includes a quick guide table that will be attached to the report you give them in Week 6. Populate the table with the answers to the questions listed above for each cost analysis. A table example is posted below:

 

Week Three Cost Analysis Table.docx

 

Format your PowerPoint® presentation to ensure that the slide bullet points only contain essential information. Your speaker notes convey the details you would give as if you were presenting.

 

Include comprehensive speaker notes.

 

Cite at least 3 peer-reviewed or similar scholarly references to support your assignment.

 

Include a slide with APA-formatted references.

 

Submit your assignment.

 

Resources

 

 

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State Budgetary Health

Post a total of 3 substantive responses over 2 separate days for full participation. This includes your initial post and 2 replies to classmates or your faculty member. 

 

Due Thursday

Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words: 

Examine your state’s current budgetary situation. Please identify your state.

  • What is the health of your state’s budget picture?
  • What are the largest budgetary issues affecting your state?
  • How have these issues affected state programs?
  • What kinds of public policies might be designed to give individuals more incentives to remain healthy and reduce demand for costly health care services?

 

Due Monday

Post 2 replies to classmates or your faculty member. Be constructive and professional.

 

 
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Position Comparison

Post a total of 3 substantive responses over 2 separate days for full participation. This includes your initial post and 2 replies to classmates or your faculty member. 

 

Due Thursday

Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words: 

Review the two contrasting think tank positions on gun control presented in the “Steps to Analysis” box on pages 211–212 of the Public Policy textbook..  

  • Which do you think is more persuasive? Explain your answer.
  • Should policy analyses try to deal with the fundamental causes of social problems, such as crime, poverty, and homelessness, or aim instead for a more pragmatic approach that may be more realistic and more politically acceptable? Explain your position.

 

Due Monday

Post 2 replies to classmates or your faculty member. Be constructive and professional.

 

I Copy and Paste Page 211-212

 

TYPES OF POLICY ANALYSIS No matter what kind of public problem needs a solution, from airline safety and urban transportation to persistent poverty or immigration, there is usually no shortage of policy studies that might apply. Some come from government offices themselves, such as the Government Accountability Office and the Congressional Research Service, or from executive agencies and departments such as the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Department of Defense. Policy analysis is becoming common at the state level (Hird 2005) and globally, both within government agencies and in the private and nonprofit sectors. A great number of studies, however, come from interest groups and independent policy research institutes or think tanks, many of which advocate specific political agendas (Rich 2004).The abundance of policy studies reflects not only the dramatic rise in the number of think tanks since the 1970s but also the even more striking increase in the number of interest groups that seek to shape public opinion on the issues and affect the policy process. This shift in the political environment is most evident at the national level, where policy researchers and interest groups pay rapt attention to the debates in Congress and the activities of administrative agencies. Even at state and local levels of government, particularly in the larger states and cities, policy studies and advocacy are common, especially as national groups such as the conservative American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) seek to influence policymaking in the states.The leading think tanks, such as the Brookings Institution, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, Urban Institute, Center for Strategic and International Studies, and Heritage Foundation, are well endowed financially and can afford large professional staffs. Many receive significant and continuing support from foundations and industry or from government agencies for whom they conduct research under contract.13 These research institutes are therefore generally well equipped to distribute their analyses throughout government, the Washington policy community, academia, and major media outlets nationwide (Ricci 1993; C. Weiss 1992). We provide a list of websites for think tanks and for other sources of policy studies at the end of the chapter. See the box “Steps to Analysis: Think Tank Positions on Policy Issues” for a comparison of the findings of two prominent think tanks, the conservative Heritage Foundation and the liberal Center for American Progress, on gun control.One way to compare think tanks is to understand the kinds of policy studies or policy analyses available today, a matter addressed briefly in chapter 1. Policy analyses fall into three broad categories: scientific, professional, and political. All serve valid purposes, but they have varying goals and objectives and use different methods. Figure 4-2 summarizes the distinctions among the three perspectives.DescriptionFigure 4-2 Orientations to Policy AnalysisSources: Drawn in part from Peter House, The Art of Public Policy Analysis (Beverly Hills, Calif.: SAGE Publications, 1982); and David L. Weimer and Aidan R. Vining, Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practice, 6th ed. (New York: Routledge, 2017).Steps to AnalysisThink Tank Positions on Policy IssuesAll think tanks conduct analysis and advocate positions on public policy issues, but some of these groups are committed to political or ideological standpoints that affect their analyses and recommendations. Gun control is one issue that think tanks of varying political persuasions have studied over the past several decades. The shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, in December 2012 and shootings at many other locations—such as a nightclub in Orlando, Florida; a high school in Parkland, Florida; a Walmart in El Paso, Texas; and a nightlife district in Dayton, Ohio—since then raise a number of questions related to use of firearms. These include the possible expansion of background checks required for those seeking to purchase a firearm, a limit on size of the ammunition clips available, a ban on assault-style weapons, and additional restrictions on gun purchases by those with diagnosed mental illness. What Did the Heritage Foundation Say about Gun Control? First, we must identify the specific problems to be addressed involving school safety, mental illness, the cultural climate, and the misuse of firearms. Second, we must analyze potential solutions to the specific problems identified, examining the facts and taking into account the costs and benefits of the potential solutions to ensure that sound judgment governs the emotions inescapably attached to the subject. Finally, Americans must implement appropriate solutions in a manner that is consistent with the Constitution, including the Second Amendment guarantee of the right to keep and bear arms, the traditional role of the states in our federal system, and the central significance of family.

 Source: John Malcolm and Jennifer A. Marshall, “The Newtown Tragedy: Complex Causes Require Thoughtful Analysis and Responses,” January 17, 2013, available at www.americanprogress.org/issues/guns-crime/report/2013/12/13/80795/the-gun-debate-1-year-after-newtown/.

 
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Development and Influence of Public Policy

In the field, you will encounter policies that affect groups of people or even whole populations. It will be incumbent upon you to objectively evaluate these policies.

 

For this assignment, you will select a policy that lies at the center of your analysis in this course. The policy you choose will be the same policy through Week Six. Do not deviate from your chosen policy; you must use the same policy in subsequent assignments. Send me a copy of or a link to your chosen policy before proceeding with this assignment.

 

Select one of the following socially charged policies:

  • Economics
  • Budgets
  • Health care
  • Welfare
  • Social Security
  • Education
  • Environmental
  • Energy
  • Foreign policy
  • Homeland Security

****MY PREFERENCE IS “WELFARE.” PLEASE SEND ME THE LINK BEFORE BEGINING THE ASSISGNMENT, PER INSTRUCTOR FOR APPROVAL”  

Your supervisor has asked you to make a presentation to the task force examining the policy that you intend to analyze. You will work on this presentation throughout the course.

 

Prepare a 15- to 20-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation in which you critique the policy in terms of justice and security. The first slide needs to contain the title of your presentation. The second slide should introduce the potential stakeholders who may be affected by the policy. The rest of the slides should address the following objectives:

 

  • How did the policy develop in terms of Money, Message, and Momentum? (Three slides)
  • How has the policy evolved since its inception?
  • What are some alternatives to this policy?
  • What is influencing the discussion around this policy?
  • What are the security issues associated with this policy?

 

Include comprehensive speaker notes. For help with speaker notes, consult the guide on how to create speaker notes from Microsoft®.

 

Format your presentation to ensure that the slide titles reflect the objective to which they are responding and only contain essential information. Slides should follow the objectives in the order as listed above. Slides should contain bullet notes that highlight your information but your speaker notes convey the details you would give if you were presenting. Include a slide with APA-formatted references. This slide and the title slide do not count toward the overall slide count.

 

Cite a minimum of three peer-reviewed or similar scholarly references beyond the course texts and associated learning activities to support your analysis. Scholarly sources are publications from professional organizations that are written by academics or other experts which contribute to knowledge in a particular field. Please review the document titled, “Unacceptable web sources,” found in the Course Resources section of the classroom. Your best sources for scholarly material are the university library or possibly Google Scholar.

 

THIS INSTRUCTOR IS ABOUT IS STRICTED!  PLEASE READ CAREFULLY ABOUT WHAT IS EXPECTED!

REMINDER FROM INSTRUCTOR:

I take plagiarism very seriously and WILL report any student who I suspect plagiarized either a paper or a discussion post to the university’s Academic Review Team. If reported, you will receive a zero on the assignment. Please be aware that I run EVERY assignment through the University’s plagiarism checker, along with other sources. Even though you have access to the same tool, when I run assignments, any use of papers from other students is identified as well. Using your own previously submitted assignments or substantial portions thereof also constitutes plagiarism; this is known as “dovetailing” or self-plagiarism.

 

Please review the University’s Student Code of Academic Integrity at this link: Student Code of Academic IntegrityThe use of a paraphrase generator or “word spinner” is expressly prohibited and is considered plagiarism, as it is a means to disguise copied material. In addition, papers suspected of being generated by Artificial Intelligence will be forwarded to conduct resolutions for examination. If plagiarism is suspected in an assignment, the assignment will not be graded, a score of zero will be recorded for that assignment, and a violation of the student code of academic conduct will be submitted to the university. Be aware that collaborating with other students on an individual assignment may result in material being substantially similar to plagiarism checkers and can trigger a review. Do not rely on the SafeAssign plagiarism checker to determine whether or not you have plagiarized material. This tool is not infallible and If I discover plagiarized material with tools other than SafeAssign, I will report the suspected plagiarism to the university’s Academic Review Team. You know where your information comes from; the safest way to avoid plagiarism is to not copy someone else’s material.

 

Class, in other courses that are heavily dependent on empirical research, I enforce a specific rule for resource information. Typically, I require that sources be no older than 10 years (five years is sometimes used). The reason for this rule is that information becomes “stale” over time, and what was true 10 years ago may not be true today. I do not have the rule for this class, as the assignments do not rely so much on specific source information. Even so, using outdated information can result in incorrect or misleading facts. Please weigh the use of dated information with the relevancy of contemporary circumstances.

Please read the assignment.  I can’t afford to fail this class.  

Please send the link before beginning the assignment.  I’m looking at the topic “Welfare”

 

Thank you!

 
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