2 points) Synaptic pruning is the process by which neurons seldom stimulated lose their connective fibers the two brain hemispheres lateralize during early childhood neural fibers become myelinated as a result of stimulation of the brain new synaptic connections are formed by environmental stimulation 2 (2 points) Donnie and Vinny are playing with similar objects in the same room, without looking at one another at all. They are engaging in _____ play. nonsocial parallel cooperative associative 3 (2 points) Robert was upset when his family car hit a dog. Although the dog was OK and ran away, Robert insisted that his father go back and “Run over the dog backwards, so he’ll be okay.” Although incorrect in this assumption, Robert is displaying egocentric thought idiosyncratic reasoning hierarchical classification reversibility of thought 4 (2 points) Understanding that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even though their outward appearance has changed is egocentrism object permanence animism conservation 5 (2 points) Which of the developmental trends matches most closely with the maturation rates of the two hemispheres of the brain? spatial skills develop very rapidly in early childhood control over the arms develops before control over the feet children show a strong hand preference from birth language skills develop very rapidly in early childhood 6 (2 points) A major factor that determines what foods children will prefer is their genetic preference for very salty foods repeated exposure to a food direct pressure to eat a particular type of food their genetic preference for very sweet foods 7 (2 points) When parents have difficulty controlling their own anger adn hostility, their children tend to be more empathic be fearful and shy have problems regulating emotion have higher IQs 8 (2 points) A set of attitudes, abilities, and values that define an individual are known as identification the self-concept self-knowledge individuation 9 (2 points) While Jesse plays, his mother comments and encourages him without giving direct instructions. This form of supportive communication is known as bootstrapping discovery learning guided participation scaffolding 10 (2 points) Which of the following statements about sex differences in aggression is true? As soon as children become aware of gender stereotypes, overt aggression drops off for boys Preschool and school-age girls are just as aggressive than boys Girls are more likely to engage in overt aggression Boys are more likely to engage in relational aggression 11 (2 points) ____ hormone and ____ hormone are pituitary hormones that affect children’s growth luteinizing; thyroid-stimulating growth; melanocyte-stimulating growth; thyroid-stimulating luteinizing; melanocyte-stimulating 12 (2 points) Researchers at a child-care center observed children who had been physically abused. Compared to their nonabused peers, abused children were more likely to ____ when another child was in distress be more empathic seek the help of an adult cry respond with anger 13 (2 points) Christine frequently plays alone with puzzles, crayons, and construction materials. It is likely that Christine is cognitively but not socially delayed bright and socially competent cognitively and socially delayed socially delayed but bright 14 (2 points) Natascha wants to design a play environment that will enhance the make-believe play of her preschoolers. WHich of the following things should she do? Offer a wide variety of realistic materials as well as materials without a clear function Limit the amount of space and play materials so that the children will not be distracted from themake-believe task Allow the children to resolve their own disagreements without adult interference Select the topic for play and then direct the children’s activities 15 (2 points) Children who spend more time in sociodramatic play are at risk for social rejection less socially competent advanced in cognitive development more physically skilled than their agemates 16 (2 points) Young Fletcher notices a four-legged creature and calls it a ‘dog’, ignoring the telltale facial features and stripes that indicate the creature is a tiger. Fletcher is demonstrating irreversibility centration conservation perception bound thought 17 (2 points) The best way of estimating a child’s physical maturity is to use skeletal age weight height head circumference 18 (2 points) According to Piaget, which of the following would have the greatest impact on mental representation for a child in the preoperational stage? playing with a ball asking a parent to get a ball dreaming about a ball looking at a ball 19 (2 points) On the average, 2- and 3- year-olds need ____ hours of sleep and 4- to 6- year-olds need _____ hours 10 to 11; 8 to 9 14 to 15; 10 to 11 14 to 15; 8 to 9 12 to 13; 10 to 11 20 (2 points) Piaget used the term _______ to describe mental representations of actions that obey logical rules organization operations function programs 21 (2 points) During early childhood, on the average, children grow about _____ inches and gain about ______ pounds each year. 3 to 4; 10 1 to 2; 10 4 to 5 5 2 to 3; 5 22 (2 points) According to Vygotsky, children speak to themselves because they are lonely for the pleasure of hearing their own voice because they are egocentric for self-guidance 23 (2 points) Myelination of the ____ throughout early childhood and into adolescence contributes to improvements in sustained, controlled attention cerebellum reticular formation frontal lobe parietal lobe 24 (2 points) A decline in appetite during the preschool years suggests a pituitary hormone disorder occurs because growth has slowed is an early sign of deprivation dwarfism indicates a deficiency of thyroxine 25 (2 points) Right-handed children are more likely than left-handed children to be weakly lateralized develop outstanding verbal and mathematical skills lie turned toward the left during the prenatal period be ambidextrous 26 (2 points) _______ refers to the judgements we make bout our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements emotional self-regulation Self-concept self-esteem self-consciousness 27 (2 points) In comparing Piaget’s and vygotsky’s theories, Piaget’s theory paid more attention to the development of basic cognitive processes Vygotsky, but not Piaget, attempted to understand the significance of children’s private speech Vygotsky placed more emphasis on skills such as categorization and problem-solving Piaget’s theory pointed out the importance of children’s communication with caregivers 28 (2 points) Which of the following is 3-year-old Leah most likely to believe is alive? the kitchen table a rock a crayon a train 29 (2 points) Neo-Piagetian theorists combine Piaget’s stage approach with an emphasis on ethology behavioral theory information processing psychoanalytic thought 30 (2 points) ______ has/have been shown to strengthen attention, memory, logical reasoning, language, imagination, and creativity Fine motor tasks Make-believe play Animistic thinking Sensorimotor activity 31 (2 points) The original inspiration for the cognitive-developmental approach to morality was the ethological theorists work of Piaget information-processing theory of cognition belief that moral development is a lifelong process 32 (2 points) Which of these influences has the strongest effect on the age at which children lose their primary teeth? Prolonged malnutrition Oral hygiene Environmental pollution Breast- versus bottle- feeding 33 (2 points) At what point are helpful and generous models most influential on children’s prosocial behavior? toddlerhood during the early elementary years infancy during the preschool years 34 (2 points) Seth’s parents make sure to provide him with lots of rich, real-world experiences and restrict his television viewing to one hour of “Sesame Street” per week. Which of the following statements about Seth is probably accurate? Seth has limites social knowledge to incorporate into fantasy play Seth’s parents are limiting his ability to engage in fantasy play Seth’s fantasy play will contain many violent themes Seth’s fantasy play involves very little aggressive behavior 35 (2 points) An overproduction of ____ during early childhood supports the plasticity of the brain dendrites axons synapses glial cells 36 (2 points) In Freud’s theory, a young girl identifies with her mother by doing new activities with her mother rejecting her father altogether feeling that her mother loves her unconditionally taking on her mother’s characteristics, including morals and gender-role standards 37 (2 points) According to Piaget, the preoperational stage begins at _____ and ends at _____ 2 years; 7 years 7 years; 10 years 4 years; 6 years birth; 4 years 38 (2 points) X-rays of ______ permit doctors to estimate children’s progress toward physical maturity growth cells epiiphyses fontannels cartilage cells 39 (2 points) Which of the following is supported by research on sleep? About half of preschoolers experience frequent difficulty falling and staying asleep Most children begin having night mares during toddlerhood Bedtime rituals become less important to children during the preschool years than they wre dureing toddlerhood In some cultures, daytime napping persists throughtou adulthood 40 (2 points) Parents use ______ with boys than girls fewer time outs less physical discipline and more “reasoning” more consistent discipline harsher discipline 41 (2 points) The make-believe play with others that first appears between 2 and 3 years is called sociodramatic play parallel play egocentric play animistic play 42 (2 points) Sean and Jordan are playing in the sandbox. Sean says, “Use the wet sand for the castle. No, the blocks will be best. Were are the blocks?” Jordan is playing with a truck at the other end of the sandbox. According to Piaget, Sean’s speech is communicative adaptive egocentric private 43 (2 points) When 4-year-old Nicholas sees a tree blowing in the wind, he says, “Look! The tree is waving at!” Nicholas is demonstrating dual representation centration animistic thinking conservation 44 (2 points) Cross-cultural research demonstrates that growth norms vary within a culture and vary by socioeconomic status vary by culture are not good standards against which to judge health problems for children in nonindustrialized countries are universal 45 (2 points) Children and adults who exhibit either masculine or androgynous characteristics are maladjusted are extremely rare are higher in self-esteem possess neither feminine nor masculine characteristics 46 (2 points) A major change in represrntation that increases steadily from 4 to 8 years of age is the appearance of self-directed sociodramatic play directing pretend actions toward other objects the awareness that make-believe is a representational activity the use of less realistic toys in make-believe play 47 (2 points) The gland located at the base of the brain that releases hormones affecting physical growth is the ____ gland thyroid ciliary adrenal pituitary 48 (2 points) Cartoon TV shows designed specifically for children are less violent than adult shows have no effect on aggression, since children do not understand them contain more acts of violence than any other type of program actually decrease aggression by providing an acceptable emotional outlet 49 (2 points) As children move from the sensorimotor to the preoperational stage, the use of objects in play become more functinal and realistic thinking becomes related to logical rules make-believe play dimishes symbolic mental activity increases 50 (2 points) According to Erikson, _____ is a means through which preschools can try new skills with little risk of criticism and failure play daydreaming having a temper tantrum displaying sympathy 51 (2 points) The _____ is a structure at the rear and base of the brain that aids in balance and control of body movement spinal cord cerebral cortex corpus callosum cerebellum 52 (2 points) By age 7, American low-SES children are, on the average, About 1 inch shorter than the average for middle-SES children Much more variable in size compared to middle-SES children No different in size than their middle-SES agemates Comparable to low-SES children in other industrialized countries
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